What happened when you surrendered to Rome, two Spanish inscriptions
Here are two interesting inscriptions, both found in Spain, that relate to the practice of surrender in the mid-Roman Republic. Although I took some guidance from Spanish translations, the translations below are my own from the Latin, as are any errors. Bibliography can be found by following the links to each inscription source.
Source: HEpOl 22832
Source: HEpOL 1755
Inscription IThe first is the only surviving inscription that explicitly records a deditio in fidem populi romani ('surrender to the trust/authority of the people of Rome'). This was an unconditional surrender, that put the community completely within the power of the Roman commander, who they hoped would reconstitute themselves and their civic identity, as well as their possessions etc. This records a successful deditio that was accepted, and was set up as a local commemoration to the event. The consulships recorded at the start allow us to date the inscription to 104 BCE; the people who surrendered to Caesius are otherwise unknown and their name has been cut off by the damage to the righthand side of the plaque. The last sentence is somewhat obscure.
Source: HEpOl 22832
The actual inscription, a mostly complete bronze plaque in excellent condition with some severe damage to the righthand side
C(aio) Mario C(aio) Flavio [co(n)s(ulibus)] / L(ucio) Caesio C(ai) f(ilio) imperatore populus Seanoc[---se] / dedit L(ucius) Caesius C(ai) f(ilius) imperator postquam [eos in deditionem] / accepit ad consilium retolit (sic) quid eis im[perandum] / censerent de consili sententia imperav[it ut omnes] / captivos equos equas quas cepis(s)ent [traderent haec] / omnia dederunt deinde eos L(ucius) Caesius C(ai) [f(ilius) imperator liberos] / esse iussit agros et aedificia leges cete[ra omina] / quae sua fuissent pridie quam se dedid[erunt quae tum] / extarent eis red(d)idit dum populus [senatusque] / Roomanus (sic) vellet deque ea re eos [qui aderunt [---]] / eire (sic) iussit legatos Cren[---f(ilius)] / Arco Cantoni f(ilius) legates (sic) [---]English
In the consulship of Gaius Marius and Gaius Flavius, the people of Seanoc[es?] surrendered themselves to the imperator Lucius Caesius, son of Gaius. After he had accepted the surrender, imperator Lucius Caesius, son of Gaius, asked the council what they should consider reasonable for him to demand from them. On the advice of the council, he demanded that they deliver all the captives, steeds and mares that they had taken. They surrendered all of these. Then the imperator Lucius Caesius, son of Gaius, ordered all the fields and buildings to continue. He restored the laws and everything else that they had until the day that they surrendered that they should be found at that time, so long as the people and senate of Rome wish. In respect to these things he ordered the legates to be Cren[… son of…] and Arcus, son of Cantonus, (who acted as) legates.
Inscription IIThe second inscription does not directly mention a deditio, but the language parallels that of the first inscription above, as well as ancient literary evidence (see Polyb., 36.4.2-3). We can date this one to 19 January 189 BCE due to the information it provides.
Source: HEpOL 1755
|The actual inscription, a bronze tessera with a handle attachment on the left, in excellent condition.|
L(ucius) Aimilius L(uci) f(ilius) inpeirator decreivit / utei quei Hastensium servei / in turri Lascutana habitarent / leiberei essent agrum oppidumqu(e) / quod ea tempestate posedisent / item possidere habereque / iuosit dum poplus senatusque / Romanus vellet act(um) in castreis / a(nte) d(iem) XII K(alendas) Febr(uarias)English
Lucius Aemilius, son of Lucius, imperator, decreed that those who were slaves of the Hastians should live in the tower of Lascutana and should be free. He commanded that they were likewise to have possession of and inhabit the land and town that they possessed at that time, so long as the people and senate of Rome wish. Enacted in the camp twelve days before the Kalends of February.