I was an AHRC-funded PhD research student in the Ancient History section of the School of History, Archaeology and Religion, at Cardiff University. My current work, including conference presentations, is on my profile. 

I defended my thesis by viva in late January 2018, passing with no corrections. Since then, I've been working on several exciting pieces for forthcoming publication.

‘Genocide’ and Rome, 343-146 BCE: state expansion and the social dynamics of annihilation.

As the nascent power of Rome grew to dominance over the Mediterranean world in the Middle Republic, they carried out mass killing, mass enslavement, and urban annihilation. In doing so, they showed an intention to destroy other groups, therefore committing genocide.

This study looks at the kinds of destruction enacted by Romans between 343 BCE and 146 BCE, using a novel application of definitions and frameworks of analysis from the field of Genocide Studies. It proposes typologies through which the genocidal behaviours of the Romans can be explored and described.

Mass killing, enslavement, and urban annihilation normally occurred in the context of siege warfare, when the entire population became legitimate targets. Initial indiscriminate killing could be followed by the enslavement of the survivors and burning of their settlement. While genocide is a valid historiographical tool of analysis, Roman behaviours were distinct from modern patterns of mass killing in lacking a substantial component of racial or ethnic motivation. These phenomena were complex and varied, and the utter destruction of groups not regularly intended. Roman genocidal violence was a normative, but not typical, adaptation of the Romans of the Middle Republic to the ancient anarchic interstate system.

In antiquity, there was no international law to govern conflict and international relations, only customs. This study posits that the Roman moral-based custom of fides as an internal preventative regime that inhibited genocide through rituals of submission to Roman hegemony. This process was flawed, and cultural miscommunication risked causing mass violence. Furthermore, the wide discretion of Roman commanders accepting submission could result in them flouting the moral obligation to protect surrendered groups. In such cases, attempts at punishment and restitution from other members of the elite were only partially effective.

The outcome is intended to both adapt sophisticated theory to the study of the ancient past, as well as to feedback into modern debates within the field of genocide studies.

Institutional repository record


I have taught and assessed Ancient History at several Higher Education institutions: Cardiff, Swansea, and University of Wales Trinity St Davids (Lampeter). I have delivered evening lifelong learning too. 

Public outreach and engagement

I'm was a Postgraduate Project Coordinator for SHARE with Schools, a secondary school outreach project. As well as recruiting and training undergraduate volunteers, and going into schools to deliver presentations and hands in artefact sessions, I whipped the online tools into shape to promote the project. In my third year with the project I took taking a lead among the coordination team.

MA Ancient History

Dissertation: 'Social nudity in recreational contexts of Roman society' (distinction).

BA (hons.) Ancient History and Cultural Criticism

Dissertation: 'The Representation of Culture Through Sex in Herodotus' (distinction).
  • Prize for best Joint Honours final year student in School of Ancient History
  • Cardiff University Scholarship for academic performance
  • Elizabeth Thomas Prize for best first year performance in School of Ancient History

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